X-Ray Lithography

To know more about lithographic process and it’s basic types, click on the link below. TAKE A LOOK : IC FABRICATION TECHNIQUES TAKE A LOOK : PHOTOLITHOGRAPHY The photolithography has its resolution limited by diffraction effects. To improve the resolution, therefore, the diffraction effects are reduced by reducing the wavelength. However, if the wavelength is […]

VLSI Design Flow

The chip design includes different types of processing steps to finish the entire flow. For anyone, who just started his carrier as a VLSI engineer has to understand all the steps of the VLSI design flow to become good in his area of operations. There are different types of design procedures for analog/digital designs and […]

V-Groove MOS (VMOS)

V-Groove MOS (VMOS) This article explains in detail about the structure of VMOS with diagram, its characteristics, anisotropic etching and also the applications of VMOS. To know the basics, click on the links given below. TAKE A LOOK : SHORT CHANNEL MOS STRUCTURES VMOS Structure The structure of VMOS is similar to short-channel power FET […]

Understanding FPGA and CPLD

Introduction In the earlier 60’s it was discrete logic used by electronic industry. The digital system would look like noodle like maze of wiring between components. Once it is built it will be difficult to do rework on it. Sometimes the designers would forget what they have designed for! Manufacturing such systems was very difficult […]

Silicon Substrate Preparation

Silicon Substrate Preparation Process In this article the details on how a silicon substrate is prepared is given.We have structured the article into 5 sections as give below for easy and effective reading. 1. The silicon crystal growth 2. Electronic grade silicon production 3. Czochralski Crystal Growth Process 4. Wafer preparation 5. Wafer processing If […]

Short Channel MOS Structures

Short Channel MOS Structures This article discusses the different factors that limit the speed of a MOSFET. The common methods to reduce the parasitics like Scaled MOS (SMOS) and High-performance MOS (HMOS) is explained in detail with their structure and diagram. There are many factors that limit the speed of a MOSFET. Because of the […]

P-N Junction Isolation

Once all components are fabricated on a single crystal wafer, they must be electrically isolated from each other. The problem is not encountered indiscrete circuits, because physically all components are isolated. There are two methods of isolation in Integrated circuits. They are P-N junction isolation and Dielectric isolation In this post we shall discuss p-n […]


To know more about the basics, click on the link below. TAKE A LOOK : IC FABRICATION TECHNIQUES When a sample of crystalline silicon is covered with silicon dioxide, the oxide-layer acts as a barrier to the diffusion of impurities, so that impurities separated from the surface of the silicon by a layer of oxide […]

Oxidation Process in IC Fabrication

To know the basics click on the following links TAKE A LOOK : IC FABRICATION TECHNIQUES TAKE A LOOK : SILICON SUBSTRATE PREPARATION TAKE A LOOK : CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION (CVD) Utility of Thermal Oxidation The function of a layer of silicon dioxide (SiO2) on a chip is multipurpose. SiO2 plays an important role in […]

NMOS IC Fabrication Process

NMOS Fabrication Process In this article the various steps needed for NMOS Fabrication are explained in detail along with diagrams. To know the basic IC Fabrication Techniques, click on the link below. TAKE A LOOK : IC FABRICATION TECHNIQUES There are a large number and variety of basic fabrication steps used in the production of […]