The circuit was designed to provide a prototype of a metronome circuit utilizing the functions of CA741 operational amplifiers.
TerminologyMetronome – a device or apparatus used to indicate or establish the exact speed or tempo of music; physically, it resembles the function of a clock but using an inverted pendulum that regularly ticks or beats at an adjustable rate or intervals due to the position of the sliding weight on the pendulumOp-Amp – a differential amplifier having a large voltage gain, very high input impedance and low output impedanceCA741 – a high gain operational amplifier, functioning as single or dual at 0.9 MHz frequency, used for commercial, industrial, and military applicationsCircuit Explanation
The operation is of circuit can be considered as astable where it continuously oscillates to different states. To produce better sound effect, two op-amps were used wherein the left side op-amp will function as a standard astable while the right side op-amp as an integrator. Other components can also be modified like the C3, C4, R7, R8, and R9 to achieve the same effect on the sound.
The astable mode is being managed by the VR1, R2 and C1 in which timing pulses are produced. The output from the first op-amp is supplied through the capacitor C2 which has direct coupling with the zener diode ZD1 going to Q1. The conduction of ZD1 and Q1 occurs for every positive change on the output pulses.
Since the second op-amp functions as integrator, the output from the left side op-amp is distorted. It functions as low pass filter where it amplifies low frequency signals passing through it. Because of this, the circuit yields to a ticking reverberation state or sound where the output pulses are represented in ringing manner. To provide a low impedance input to the integrator, resistor R8 is used which produces a tock reverberation state or sound.
Since CA741 op-amps have input bias current of 500 nA and input offset current of 200 nA, they are mainly used for applications such as narrow band or band pass filter, integrator or differentiator, summing amplifier, DC amplifier, multivibrator, and comparator.
Metronomes were mainly utilized by musicians for the purpose of sustaining a steady rhythm by improving the timing, by synchronizing with the beat, and by tracing the progress of learning using any musical equipment. They can be of different types such as software metronomes used as stand alone for multitracking of audio and sequencing of music, as electronic metronomes as compared to wristwatches having a constant accuracy, and as mechanical metronomes which controls the music tempo by means of an inverted pendulum rod.