Digital Circuits


Digital Main Voltage Indicator

Continuous monitoring of the mains voltage is required in many applications such as manual voltage stabilisers and motor pumps. An analogue voltmeter, though cheap, has many disadvantages as it has moving parts and is sensitive to vibrations. The solidstate voltmeter circuit described here indicates the mains voltage with a resolution that is comparable to that […]


Heart Rate Monitor

Strictly speaking, this simple circuit shouldn’t work! How could anyone expect an ordinary light dependent resistor photo cell to ‘see’ through a fingertip in natural daylight and detect the change in blood flow as the heart pulsates? The secret is a high gain circuit, based on a dual op amp IC which can be either […]


USB-Powered PIC Programmer

This simple circuit can be used to program the PIC16F84 and similar “flash memory” type parts. It uses a cheap 555 timer IC to generate the programming voltage from a +5V rail, allowing the circuit to be powered from a computer’s USB port. The 555 timer (IC1) is configured as a free-running oscillator, with a […]


Cat And Dog Repellent

The electronic dog repellent circuit diagram below is a high output ultrasonic transmitter which is primarily intended to act as a dog and cat repeller, which can be used individuals to act as a deterrent against some animals. It should NOT be relied upon as a defence against aggressive dogs but it may help distract […]


Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulator (TENS)

A Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) device is, put bluntly, a machine for giving electric shocks. The author was prescribed such a device on loan by his orthopaedic specialist. The unit has a large number of programmes, of which he used only one. Measuring the signals at the output of the device in this mode […]


Adjustable High-Low Frequency Sine Wave Generator

This circuit uses the versatile MAX038 function generator. Although in this circuit some of the advanced characteristics of this IC are disabled, you can generate Sine, Triangle, Square waves (adjusting A0 and A1 pins see datasheet on http://www.maxim-ic.com if you want other waves, use a switch). The signal is amplified through a TCA0372 (from ONSEMI) […]


Pipe Descaler

For many years now, magnetic (or electromagnetic) water descaler devices have been showing up on the shelves of Home Improvement and other DIY stores all over Europe. Despite the numerous studies completed on that subject, by manufacturers as well as by various consumer associations, none have been able to conclude on the efficiency of commercial […]


Simple Telephone Central Project

This simple telephone switching system is designed by Dr. Mustafa Kemal PEKER for training purposes. All responsibility is belong to user. Schematic and code is under GNU public licence. Cannot be used as commercially. Circuit diagram Work: 1) System contains 1 subscriber and 1 central 2) Central cannot call. 3) When subscriber hangs up, Central […]


Mains Slave Switcher

There are many situations where two or more pieces of equipment are used together and to avoid having to switch each item on separately or risk the possibility of leaving one of them on when switching the rest off, a slave switch is often used. Applications which spring to mind are a computer/printer/scanner etc or […]


Infra-red Receiver

This very simple infra-red receiver is intended to form an infra-red remote control system with the simple infra-red transmitter described in this site. The system does not use any kind of coding or decoding, but the carrier of the transmitter is modified in a simple manner to provide a constant switching signal. Since the receive […]