Arduino RFID Access Control with EM-18


The use of Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) technologies is growing. Many different applications are implemented in various sectors, and used for very different purposes. RFID enables wireless data collection by readers from electronic tags attached to or embedded in objects, for identification and other purposes. This article describes the construction of a simple Arduino RFID Access control DIY (Do It Yourself) Project using Arduino UNO and a RFID reader module (EM-18) to control an LED and a Relay. Circuit schematic and Arduino Sketch (source code) are provided here.

The reader transmits radio frequency when powered ON. When the tag is placed near the reader, the RFID tag will receive the radio frequency via the antenna inside tag. The radio frequency received will be converted into electrical power that is enough for the tag to transmit the data back to the RFID reader. Further, the reader will transmit the tag ID to the external device by serial communication. A wide range of reader modules are now available. The most common and easy to use reader is EM-18. This module read the RFID passive tag and sends the tag ID to the Arduino microcontroller.

Arduino rfid with em 18

Reading The RFID Tag ID

First of all upload this simple program to Arduino Uno using the IDE:

int count = 0;
void setup()
{
	Serial.begin(9600);
}
void loop()
{
	if(Serial.available())
	{
		count = 0; // Reset count to zero// Keep reading Byte by Byte from the Buffer till the Buffer is empty
		{
			char input = Serial.read();
			Serial.print(input);
			count++; //
			delay(5); //
		}
		Serial.println();
		Serial.print("Tag Length : ");
		Serial.print(count);
		Serial.println(" Bytes");
	}
}

Now wire the hardware as shown here.

Arduino em18 rfid

Open the Serial Monitor in Arduino IDE, hold the RFID Tag very close to the central part of the RFID Reader, and write down the displayed Tag ID. This uniqued ID is essential in the next skecth! (Our Tag ID is 51005F46642C)

The Access Control

Here, the system is configured to compare the unique id (of the tag we used) with the ID of any tag being exhibited.

Remove the existing connection and upload this new sketch to Arduino:

/* Arduino Simple RFID Access Control
Using EM-18 RFID Reader Module
Prefatory Code For Novices
An inspired design. Thanks to Internet!
T.K.Hareendran
Project designed & tested at TechNode on 17.02.2014
http://www.electroschematics.com */
#define RELAYPIN 13
#define WARNLEDPIN 12
char tag[] ="51005F46642C"; // Replace with your own Tag ID
char input[12];				// A variable to store the Tag ID being presented
int count = 0;				// A counter variable to navigate through the input[] character array
boolean flag = 0;			// A variable to store the Tag match status
void setup()
{
	Serial.begin(9600);		// Initialise Serial Communication with the Serial Monitor
	pinMode(RELAYPIN,OUTPUT);	// RELAY OUTPUT
	pinMode(WARNLEDPIN,OUTPUT); //WRONG TAG INDICATOR
}
void loop()
{
	if(Serial.available())// Check if there is incoming data in the RFID Reader Serial Buffer.
	{
		count = 0; // Reset the counter to zero
		/* Keep reading Byte by Byte from the Buffer till the RFID Reader Buffer is	empty 
		   or till 12 Bytes (the ID size of our Tag) is read */
		while(Serial.available() && count < 12) 
		{
			input[count] = Serial.read(); // Read 1 Byte of data and store it in the input[] variable
			count++; // increment counter
			delay(5);
		}
		/* When the counter reaches 12 (the size of the ID) we stop and compare each value 
		    of the input[] to the corresponding stored value */
		if(count == 12) // 
		{
			count =0; // reset counter varibale to 0
			flag = 1;
			/* Iterate through each value and compare till either the 12 values are 
			   all matching or till the first mistmatch occurs */
			while(count<12 && flag !=0)  
			{
				if(input[count]==tag[count])
				flag = 1; // everytime the values match, we set the flag variable to 1
				else
				flag= 0; 
                               /* if the ID values don't match, set flag variable to 0 and 
                                  stop comparing by exiting the while loop */
				count++; // increment i
			}
		}
		if(flag == 1) // If flag variable is 1, then it means the tags match
		{
			Serial.println("Access Allowed!");
			digitalWrite(RELAYPIN,HIGH);
			delay (5000);
			digitalWrite (RELAYPIN,LOW);
		}
		else
		{
			Serial.println("Access Denied"); // Incorrect Tag Message
			digitalWrite(WARNLEDPIN,HIGH);
			delay(5000);
			digitalWrite(WARNLEDPIN,LOW);
		}
		/* Fill the input variable array with a fixed value 'F' to overwrite 
		all values getting it	empty for the next read cycle */
		for(count=0; count<12; count++) 
		{
			input[count]= 'F';
		}
		count = 0; // Reset counter variable
	}
}

Arduino rfid relay

ARD F3

Re-wire the hardware connection (with some modifications) as shown in the diagram above. Here, pin D12 of Arduino is used to drive a standard 5mm LED, and D13 is used to drive an Electro-Magnetic Relay through a transistor-based relay driver. Everytime the tag values match, D13 goes high for 5 seconds.The Relay can be used to control an external load, like a door-striker. If the tag values don’t match, D13 remains in low state, but warning is raised by the LED connected at D12.


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